By Gary Krasner
October 22, 2001
The public is now getting lot;s of medical propaganda about the eradication of smallpox through vaccination. But in fact, the consensus among leading medical historians that have studied the question have concluded that the eradication of the zymotic, or filth diseases, like cholera, dysentary, typhus, plague, in the past that are popularly attributed to mass vaccination campaigns, had actually been due to improvements in diet, hygiene, sanitary measures, non-medical public health laws, and to a host of new non-medical technologies, like refrigeration, faster transportation, and the like (McKinlay, 1977; McKeown, 1979; Moberg & Cohen, 1991; Oppenheimer, 1992; Dubos, 1959).
The CDC reported (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, July 30, 1999, 48:621-628) that improvements in sanitation, water quality, hygiene, had been the most important factors in control of infectious diseases in the past century. Although vaccines were mentioned, they were not included among the major factors.
One of the conclusions in Thomas McKeowns seminal work, ;The Modern Rise Of Populations; (1976, also endorsed by a Lancet editorial, 2/1/75), was that the decline in mortality in the 18th and 19th centuries was essentially due to the reduction in deaths from infectious diseases, and that it was not the result of immunizations. Similar studies by scholars John & Sonia McKinlay (1977) shows that almost all the increase in human lifespan since the year 1900 is due to reductions in infectious disease, with medical intervention (of all kinds) accounting for only about 3 per cent of that reduction. According to World Health Statistics Annual, 1973-76, vol.2, “there has been a steady decline of infectious diseases in most developing countries regardless of the percentage of immunizations administered in these countries.”
Before health agencies and schools of public health were completely taken over by allopathic medicine, the great legacy of the sanitary reformers;Max von Penttenkofer, James T. Briggs, Dr. John Snow, Edwin Chadwick, Florence Nightingale, Dr. Southwood Smith& was that they were able to eradicate cholera, yellow fever, tuberculosis, typhus, typhoid, scarlet fever, diphtheria, whooping cough, measles and the bubonic plague long before vaccinations were developed or routinely used.
Not only had poor sanitation and nutrition lay the foundation for disease, it was also compulsory smallpox vaccination campaigns in the late 19th and early 20th centuries that played a major role in decimating the populations of Japan (48,000 deaths), England & Wales (44,840 deaths, after 97 per cent of the population had been vaccinated), Scotland, Ireland, Sweden, Switzerland, Holland, Italy, India (3 million—all vaccinated), Australia, Germany (124,000 deaths), Prussia (69,000 deaths all revaccinated), and the Philippines. The epidemics ended in cities where smallpox vaccinations were either discontinued or never begun, and also after sanitary reforms were instituted (Most notably in Munich-1880, Leicester-1878, Barcelona-1804, Alicante-1827, India-1906, etc.).
In many nations, mortalities from smallpox hadn’t begun to decline until the citizenry revolted against compulsory smallpox vaccination laws. For example, the town of Leicester from 1878 to 1898 stood in stark contrast to the rest of England where thousands were dying from the aggressive half century-old government mandatory immunization campaigns.
By 1907, the Vaccination Acts of England were repealed, with the help of some of the world’s preeminent scientists who had turned staunchly against vaccination: Alfred Russel Wallace (one of the founders of modern evolutionary biology and zoogeography, and co-discoverer with Charles Darwin of the Theory of Natural selection), Charles Creighton (Britain’s most learned epidemiologist and medical historian), William Farr (epidemiologist and medical statistician, first to describe how seasonal epidemics rise and fall; known today as Farr’;s Law), and the renowned Dr. Edgar M. Crookshank, Professor of Bacteriology and Comparative Pathology in King’s College, London, and author of the scathing scientific critique of vaccination, The History and Pathology of Vaccination (1889). But before the law was amended in 1898 to include a conscientious exemption clause, an average of 2,000 parents per year were jailed and prosecuted some repeatedly for resisting vaccination. Large numbers went to prison in default of paying fines. Hundreds had their homes and possessions seized.
By 1919, England and Wales had become one of the least vaccinated countries, and had only 28 deaths from smallpox, out of a population of 37.8 million people. By contrast, during that same year, out of a population of 10 million all triply vaccinated over the prior 6 years the Philippine Islands registered 47,368 deaths from smallpox. The epidemic came after the culmination of a ruthless 15-year compulsory vaccination campaign by the U.S., in which the native population young and old were forcibly vaccinated (several times), literally against their will. In a speech condemning the smallpox vaccine reprinted in the Congressional Record of 12/21/37, William Howard Hay, M.D. said, “ . . . the Philippines suffered the worst attack of smallpox, the worst epidemic three times over, that had ever occurred in the history of the islands, and it was almost three times as fatal. The death rate ran as high as 60 per cent in certain areas, where formerly it had been 10 and 15 per cent. In the province of Rizal, for example, smallpox mortalities increased from an average 3 per cent (before vaccination) to 67 per cent during 1918 and 1919. All told, after 10 years (1911-1920) of a compulsory U.S. program which administered 25 million vaccinations to the Philippine population of 10 million, there had been 170,000 cases, and more than 75,000 deaths from smallpox.
Inducing the public to clamour for smallpox vaccines for every American will lead to a repeat of the aforementioned tragic events. In many additional examples, cases the sickness, injuries and deaths commonly attributed to the microbe were actually due, wholly or in part, to the poisoning effects of vaccination campaigns: from the worldwide influenza epidemic of 1918-19 that killed 20 million following the administration of anti-typhoid inoculations, to the 1976 Swine flu epidemic (among hogs!) that permanently crippled a meager few thousand Americans with Guillain-Barré syndrome following an ill-advised national vaccination program. Paralytic diseases have been recorded hundreds of years ago. But epidemic numbers hadn’t appeared until the latter part of the 19th century, right after compulsory smallpox vaccination was instituted.
Reprinted with permission of the author.
Contact info: mailto:GK-CFIC@juno.com
“If humanity is to pass safely through its present crisis on earth, it willbe because a majority of individuals are now doing their own thinking”.
by Ian Sinclair.
In England, compulsory vaccination against smallpox was first introduced in 1852, yet in the period 1857 to 1859, a smallpox epidemic killed 14,244 people. In 1863 to 1865, a second epidemic claimed 20,059 lives. In 1867, a more stringent compulsory vaccination law was passed and those who evaded vaccination were prosecuted. After an intensive tour year effort to vaccinate the entire population between the ages of 2 – 50, the Chief Medical Officer of England announced in May 1871 that 97.5% had been vaccinated. In the following year, 1872, England experienced its worst ever smallpox epidemic which claimed 44,840 lives. Between 1871-1880, during the period of compulsory vaccination, the death rate from smallpox leapt from 28 to 46 per 100,000 population.
Writing in the British Medical Journal (21/1/1928 p116) Dr L Parry questions the vaccination statistics which revealed a higher death rate amongst the vaccinated than the unvaccinated and asks:
“How is it that smallpox is five times as likely to be fatal in the vaccinated as in the unvaccinated?
“How is it that in some of our best vaccinated towns – for example, Bombay and Calcutta – smallpox is rife, whilst in some of our worst vaccinated towns, such as Leicester, it is almost unknown?
“How is it that something like 80 per cent of the cases admitted into the Metropolitan Asylums Board smallpox hospitals have been vaccinated, whilst only 20 per cent have not been vaccinated?
“How is it that in Germany, the best vaccinated country in the world, there are more deaths in proportion to the population than In England – for example, in 1919, 28 deaths in England, 707 in Germany; In 1920, 30 deaths in England, 354 in Germany. In Germany in 1919 there were 5,012 cases of smallpox with 707 deaths; in England in 1925 there were 5,363 cases of smallpox with 6 deaths. What is the explanation?
In Scotland, between 1855-1875, over 9,000 children under 5 died of smallpox despite Scotland being, at that time, one of the most vaccinated countries in the world. In 1907- 1919 with only a third of the children vaccinated, only 7 smallpox deaths were recorded for children under 5 years of age.
In Germany, in the years 1870-1 871, over 1,000,000 people had smallpox of which 120,000 died. 96% of these had been vaccinated. An address sent to the governments of the various German states from Bismarck, the Chancellor of Germany, contained the following comments:
“… the hopes placed in the efficacy of the cowpox virus as preventative of smallpox have proved entirely deceptive”.
In the Philippines, prior to US takeover in 1905, case mortality from smallpox was about 10%. In 1905, following the commencement of systematic vaccination enforced by the US Government, an epidemic occurred where the case mortality ranged from 25% to 50% in different parts of the islands. In 1918-1919 with over 95% of the population vaccinated, the worst epidemic in the Philippine’s history occurred resulting in a case mortality of 65%. The highest percentage occurred in the capital Manila, the most thoroughly vaccinated place. The lowest percentage occurred in Mindanao, the least vaccinated place owing to religious prejudices. Dr V de Jesus, Director of Health, stated that the 1918-1919 smallpox epidemic resulted in 60,855 deaths. The 1920 Report of the Philippines Health Service contains the following comments:
“From the time in which smallpox was practically eradicated In the city of Manila to the year 1918 (about 9 years) in which the epidemic appears certainly In one of its severest forms, hundreds after hundreds of thousands of people were yearly vaccinated with the most unfortunate result that the 1918 epidemic looks prima facie as a flagrant failure of the classic Immunization towards future epidemics”.
In Japan, 1885, 13 years after compulsory vaccination commenced in 1872, a law was passed requiring re-vaccination every seven years. From 1886 to 1892, 25,474,370 revaccinations were recorded in Japan. Yet during this same period Japan had 156,175 cases of smallpox with 38,979 deaths representing a case mortality of nearly 25%. In 1896, Japanese Parliament passed another act requiring every Japanese resident to be vaccinated and re-vaccinated every 5 years. Between 1889 and 1908, there were 171,611 smallpox cases with 47,919 deaths, a case mortality of 30%. This case mortality exceeds the smallpox death-rate of the pre-vaccination period when nobody was vaccinated. It is noteworthy that Australia, one of the least vaccinated countries in the world for smallpox had only three smallpox cases in 15 years, in comparison with Japan’s record of 165,775 cases and 28,979 deaths in only 6 years of compulsory vaccination and re-vaccination.
In an article, Vaccination In Italy’ which appeared In the New York Medical Journal, July 1899, Chas Rauta, Professor of Hygiene and Material Medical in the University of Perguia, Italy, points out:
“Italy is one of the best vaccinated countries in the world, if not the best of all, for twenty years before 1885, our nation was vaccinated in the proportion of 98.5%. Notwithstanding, the epidemics of smallpox that we have had have been something so frightful that nothing before the invention of vaccination could equal them. During 1887, we had 16,249 deaths from smallpox; in 1888- 18,110 and 1889 – 131,413″.
Professor Rauta has stated:
“Vaccination is a monstrosity a misbegotten offspring of error and ignorance; it should have no place in either hygiene or medicine ….Believe not in vaccinaton, it is a world-wide delusion, an unscientific practice, a fatal superstition with consequences measured today by tears and sorrow without end’.
From his book, The Vaccination Superstition, Dr J W Hodge writes:
“After a careful consideration of the history of vaccination gleaned from an impartial and comprehensive study of vital statistics, and pertinent data from every reliable source, and after an experience derived from having vaccinated 31000 subjects, I am firmly convinced that vaccination cannot be shown to have any logical relation to the diminution of cases of smallpox….
“Vaccination does not protect, it actually renders its subjects more susceptible by depressing vital power and diminishing natural resistance, and millions of people have died of smallpox which they contracted after being vaccinated’.
In the USA, June 25th, 1937, Dr William Howard Hay addressed the Medical Freedom Society on the Lemke Bill to abolish compulsory vaccination. He stated:
“l have thought many times of all the insane things we have advocated in medicine, that is one of the most insane – to insist on the vaccination of children, or anybody else, for the prevention of smallpox when, as a matter of fact, we are never able to prove that vaccination saved one man from smallpox….
“I know of one epidemic of smallpox comprising nine hundred and some cases, in which 95 per cent of the infected had been vaccinated, and most of them recently….
“it is now thirty years since I have been confining myself to the treatment of chronic disease … I have run across so many histories of children who had never seen a sick day until they were vaccinated and who… have never seen a well day since….
“In England, where statistics are kept a little more frankly and accurately and above board… than in this country the actual official records show 3 times as many deaths directly from vaccinations as from smallpox for the past twenty one years… I will guarantee you that there are 3 times as many deaths that were not recorded, that are directly traceable to vaccinations. That doesn’t take into account the many, many cases of encephalitis or sleeping sickness, and of this or that form of degeneration, that occurs as the result of vaccination….
“it is nonsense to think that you can inject pus – and it is usually from the pustule end of the dead smallpox victim… it is unthinkable that you can inject that into a little child and in any way improve its health. What is true of vaccination is exactly as true of all forms of serum immunization, so called…if we could by any means build up a natural resistance to disease through these artificial means, I would applaud it to the echo, but we can’t do it….
“The body has its own methods of defense. These depend on the vitality of the body at the time. If it is vital enough, it will resist all infections; if it Isn’t vital enough, it won’t, and you can’t change the vitality of the body for the better by introducing poison of any kind into it”.
According to the official figures of the Register General of England only 109 children (under 5) in England and Wales died of smallpox in the twenty-three years ending December 1933, but 270 died of vaccinations in the same period in these two countries. Between 1934 and 1961, not one smallpox death was recorded and yet during this same period 115 children under 5 years of age died as a result of the smallpox vaccination. This ultimately forced the government to repeal the Vaccination Act for smallpox.
The situation was just as bad in the USA. An article in the July 1969 issue of Prevention Magazine stated that 300 children in the USA died from the complications of smallpox vaccine since 1948. Yet during that same period there was not one reported case of smallpox in the country. In October 1971, Dr Samuel Katz, Duke University Medical Centre, speaking at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Pediatrics said that an average of six to nine Individuals die each year from smallpox vaccinations. Authorities eventually abandoned the vaccine as Dr Archie Kalokerinos points out:
“About 10 – 15 years ago some of my colleagues in the United States gave me some very interesting information. They said that smallpox vaccination had been stopped, not because smallpox had been wiped out, but because they were having trouble with the vaccine. They would vaccinate an individual and that individual would give active smallpox to a contact. The whole thing was out of control and they weren’t game to use it’.
This is probably why Professor Ari Zuckerman, a member of the World Health organization’s advisory panel on viruses has stated, “Immunization against smallpox is more hazardous that the disease itself’. Even the British Medical Journal (1/5/1976) states:
“It is now accepted that the risks of routine smallpox vaccination outweigh those of natural infection In Britain”‘.
On May 11th 1987, the London Times ran a front-page story, headlines, “SMALLPOX VACCINE TRIGGERED AIDS VIRUS”. The gist of the story was that, somehow, the World Health Organisation (WHO) in its efforts to eradicate smallpox in the third world, had triggered millions of AIDS cases in Africa, Haiti, and Brazil. A WHO adviser said:
“I thought it was just a coincidence until we studied the latest findings about the reactions which can be caused by Vaccination. Now I believe the smallpox vaccine theory is the explanation to The AIDS explosion”.
Health statistics from WHO reveal that the greatest spread of HIV (AIDS virus) infection coincides with the areas having the most intensive vaccination programs. It has been speculated that smallpox vaccine given to millions throughout Africa, Haiti and Brazil has the potential to weaken the immune system of susceptible individuals. This can result in the dormant AIDS viruses present in such people to become activated and assume virulent powers. Dr Robert Gallo, America’s number one AIDS researcher has stated:
“I have been saying for some years that the use of live vaccines such as that used from smallpox can activate a dormant infection such as HIV (AIDS).”
WHY VACCINATION CONTINUES
“The propaganda in favour of immunization has won the minds of the masses and has influenced medical thinking, and government and international measures, relating to disease control. This has been at the expense of methods which might have raised the real level of well-being of the people at risk. This begins to impinge upon the realms of politics and economics, for the gains are great in this area, and the truth is not always palatable. The removal of the idea of protection, via immunization, and the implementation of expensive measures to improve nutrition in countries which can hardly make ends meet, would not be welcome themes for politicians, even if they could be made to listen to the facts.——Leon Chaitow
“That vaccination continues to this day is not because of its ‘assumed’ benefits, but
- (1) because it yields millions of dollars profit to the Drug Industry,
- (2) because it is one of the foundation stones of Medical Science upon which they have undeservedly built their power and prestige, and for that reason, must remain In place, and
- (3) because the majority of the public, brainwashed by medical propaganda, and unwilling to think for themselves, blindly accept it.
“If humanity is to pass safely through its present crisis on earth, it will be because a majority of individuals are now doing their own thinking”. Buckminster Fuller
Reproduced with permission from Vaccination The “Hidden” Facts by Ian Sinclair, 5 Ivy St, Ryde NSW 2112, Australia. Ph (015) 294 817.
Please go to the Whale website for tons more on smallpox history and smallpox vaccine critics:
SMALLPOX CAUSED BY THE COMMON BEDBUG: It never seemed to be that contagious looking back through the history books
NB: Ascorbic acid was shown to inactivate (1930’s) the vaccinia virus by Kliger and Bernkopf. The Hoof and mouth virus by Langenbusch and Enderling. Rabies virus by Amato etc etc
BACTERIA INC. by Cash Asher 1949 CHAPTER THREE
http://www.whale.to/v/asher3.html Cimex Lectularius
It was at the end of the nineteenth century that enterprising researchers began looking outside the theory of contagion for the cause of malaria, typhoid, and smallpox. They traced typhoid to contaminated water, and trailed malaria to its lair in the proboscis of the female mosquito; and they tracked smallpox over many trails, until they found it hidden in the bed. Cimex lectularius was its host.
Cimex lectularius is a formidable name for the little brown-shelled creature known commonly as the bedbug. The name was given to the insect generations ago in Italy where, incidentally, smallpox has been a scourge since early times. “Cimex” is the Latin word for bug, and “lectularius” simply means bed or couch.
While Cixnex lectularius is innocent in appearance, he has been a deadly assassin of the human race. The mystery story of all times could be woven about his insidious assault upon mankind. He has committed the perfect crime. He has gone undetected while the blame for his crimes has been attributed by the greatest medical scientists to an invisible air-borne germ lurking in the microscopic depths of matter.
This “innocent” bug, since time immemorial, has been the bedfellow of the human race. Grudgingly, yet with resignation, people have let him have his small feast of blood. They never suspected that as he feasted he left at the banquet table the lethal virus of smallpox. Aside from those he killed, he marked the faces of millions; turned beauty into a pock-marked mask. For generations, these pitted millions blemished the racial streams of the world.
Science moved quickly and effectively to exterminate the malaria-carrying mosquito; and sanitary engineers tackled the problem of water purification. Why then did they not move with equal dispatch against the greatest of all killers – the bedbug? Economically, when Cimex lectularius was exposed as the carrier of smallpox, the manufacturing of serums had grown into a profitable industry. The vaccination of every child before entering school had become an established practice. Many states and cities had enacted laws and regulations making it compulsory. Practically every doctor in the land was finding vaccination a lucrative part of his practice. Medicine had put the stamp of its authority upon this procedure.
Thus, when Drs. Campbell, Watts, and others at the turn of the century brought forth the startling facts of their findings on the cause of smallpox, their reports and writings were overlooked. They had made a major discovery. It would protect the cameo beauty of the children of the future. It would remove the dread of death and scarification, and safeguard people everywhere in the world from the pollution in the needle.
It was Dr. Charles A. R. Campbell, of San Antonio, Texas, who first directed attention to the bedbug as a carrier of smallpox virus. He was an outstanding scientist of his generation. The San Antonio Light, in an article as late as October 29, 1946, referred to Dr. Campbell in these words:
“The value of bats as a mosquito eradicator was first discovered by the late Dr. Charles A. R. Campbell, a San Antonio scientist. He was recommended for the Nobel prize in recognition of the service he had rendered the world in mosquito eradication.”
The stature of the San Antonio doctor was also recognized by The Saturday Evening Post of May 29, 1948, when it published an article telling of the prevailing interest of naturalists and students of Americana in his methods of combating malaria. Branching into three specific fields of research, typhoid, malaria, and smallpox, Dr. Campbell made notable contributions to each. As Health Officer, and Bacteriologist in control of the Pest House in San Antonio, he had ample opportunity to study smallpox; and devoted his keen and penetrating intellect to the problems of discovering its cause, whether it was contagious or infectious, and the efficacy of vaccination. Finally, in a paper presented to the Bexar Medical Society, he identified the carrier, stated that the disease is neither infectious nor contagious, and declared that vaccination does not prevent smallpox.
The following excerpts are from that report, which he included later in his book, Bats, Mosquitoes & Dollars.
Dr. Campbell’s extensive experiments led him to the conviction that “bedbugs are the only diffusing agents of this loathsome disease,” and that “our present knowledge of its being air-borne, or of its being transmitted by fomites, must be all wrong.” First, he sought to demonstrate its non-contagiousness by means of clothing, bedding, hangings . . and used himself as subject. He was finally able to report:
“As even the air itself, without contact, is considered sufficient to convey this disease, and touching the clothes of a smallpox patient considered equivalent to contracting it, I exposed myself with the same impunity as my pesthouse keeper, who is immune, having had the smallpox:”
Dr. Campbell went from house to house where there were victims of the disease, removing them to the pest house, under legal authority, and “never conveyed this disease to my family, nor to any of my patients or friends, although I did not disinfect myself or my clothes nor take any precautions whatever, except to be sure that no bedbugs got about my clothing.”
Another experiment was to beat a rug thoroughly in a small room from which had just been removed a smallpox patient. He remained in the dust-stufling room for thirty minutes, “inhaling particles of organic as well as micro-organic matter,” thus representing the respiratory as well as digestive systems as accepted avenues of infection. Upon a microscopic examination of his sputum the following morning he found “cotton and woolen fibres, pollen, and comminuted manure, as also bacteria of many kinds.” From that time on, he mingled freely with his patients and his friends but none of them contracted the disease. Next, he exposed two city carpenters, two laborers, and himself to the germs of an outhouse that had been used at the pest house for smallpox patients only, for five years. Three of the workers had not been vaccinated and the fourth only in infancy. He reported concerning that unaesthetic job:
“It was constructed of 1 x 12 inch slats and boards. With hatchets and levers the old structure was soon razed, and the foul-smelling lumber was carried by each of us a distance of one hundred yards and neatly reconstructed. “As the day was very hot and our water supply some distance from the work, I placed a bucket of water about ten feet from the work and in such a direction with the wind that the dust from the sawing and nailing of the old boards would fall into the water. Of course, the laborers did not observe my object in so doing, and they and myself all drank freely of the water until noon. After dinner all of us worked on that foul-smelling structure and drank of that same water until evening, when the work was completed.”
The doctor had these men under observation for fourteen days, but neither he nor they took the smallpox.
It was the custom in San Antonio at that time to burn any laundry that happened to be found at the home of a Negro washwoman when the disease struck some member of the Negro family, the owners of the clothing being reimbursed from public funds. In five cases, Dr. Campbell took the clothes t o the detention hospital, spread them out on the grass, and examined them for bedbugs. Finding them free of bugs, he returned them to the owners without any disinfection whatever. These clothes, did not convey disease to anyone.
But most startling of all was his work in the detention hospital. First, he made sure that there was not a bedbug in the place, or that none was carried in by the patients. Then he repeatedly allowed well members of a family to mingle with relatives in various stages of smallpox illness. No one ever caught the disease in this manner. Specific cases that he gave in his report to the Baxar Medical Society, and in his subsequent book, are well worth quoting here.
“Anita H., a Mexican child, four years of age, never vaccinated and who had never had the disease, was taken to the pest house, where she took a baby out of the crib and played with it about four hours, hugging and kissing it and riding it in a perambulator around the grounds; but, although this baby was covered with pustules of smallpox, and although we took no precautions whatever (the girl’s mother having agreed to this experiment), the girl did not acquire the disease.” Another case was brought to the detention hospital in a vesicular stage, remaining until recovery and the routine dismissal. Of the subsequent test in this case, Dr. Campbell reported:
“In this case I caused the bed clothes of his bed to be undisturbed when he recovered. The same bed, without any change in the bed clothes, was then occupied by L.M. This individual had never been vaccinated nor had smallpox, and understood that he occupied this bed as an experiment. He did not acquire the disease.”
A family of six were taken into the detention hospital, since three of the children acquired smallpox and the family did not wish to be separated. The parents had had the disease but the fourth had escaped it. The family remained in the one room for the period of six weeks – eighteen days after the period of desquamation of the case that developed last.
They were returned home, the one child not having acquired the disease during the six-weeks’ constant exposure. However, upon the fifth day after returning home, this child acquired the initial fever. The doctor then examined their house and found it to be “literally alive” with bedbugs.
Dr. Campbell had at the Pest House half a dozen employees who did the washing and scrubbing. He had employed these people because, as he explained, they were “non immune” – and yet none of them ever contracted the disease.
The night watchman, vaccinated in infancy, frequently mingled with the patients, keeping up the fires and remaining all night, but did not contract the disease. Nor did the man whom he designated as “A.C., never vaccinated nor had the smallpox,” but who mingled with the patients in all the stages, playing cards with them and eating and sleeping in the infected tents. He told of two children, aged eleven and nine years, one vaccinated in infancy, the other never successfully, who played with the children at the Pest House in all stages of the disease without the least harm.
Among the patients coming under his observation and care was a girl of eleven years who developed smallpox after arriving at a San Antonio hotel. The doctor took this patient and her father and mother to the Pest House, locking the door of their room at the hotel and leaving orders that no one be allowed to enter it until his return. This room had been occupied two days and two nights by the patient. Upon his return, Dr. Campbell carefully inspected the bed and the entire room, particularly the walls and ceiling, and not finding any bedbugs, told the hotel proprietor that the room was again all right: and it was from that time on occupied. All of the occupants were kept under observation, but not a case developed in any of the persons occupying the room.
Another case described by the doctor was that of a little girl who was seized by the disease about eight hours before reaching San Antonio. This little patient’s family consisted of her father, mother, and brother eight years old. He took them all to the Pest House. The man he allowed to leave and go to the city, as he pleased: and, with the doctor’s consent, he procured a horse and buggy and took his wife riding every day. At night they went to the theatre, returning to the Pest House to sleep. The father bought a doll for the little girl; and she played with it, being at the time thoroughly covered with smallpox. She made a dress for this doll, slept with it at night, kissed it, and played with it constantly, until about the fourth day, when she became displeased with it; and after some consultation her father returned it to the store where it was purchased and exchanged it for a larger doll. The clerk from whom the purchase was made was kept under secret observation for a long time; but nothing developed from the exchange.
In one instance at the Pest House a blanket used by a Mexican woman who was ill with smallpox was inadvertently given to the wife of one of the keepers and she used it for a cover for her baby three weeks old, wrapping him snugly in it. The mistake was not discovered for a week – yet the baby did not contract the disease.
After making a great many of these experiments, Dr. Campbell invited the City Council and other officers of the city government to the Pest House. These officials were familiar with the experimental work he was doing. Several of them made laudatory speeches of the experiments. Evidently they had faith in what he was doing for they visited the Pest House without fear and attended a banquet honoring Dr. Campbell. They remained two or three hours in an atmosphere charged with smallpox, and even contacted patients directly, yet all escaped the disease.
In his report to the Bexar Medical Association, Dr. Campbell made it clear that he had destroyed the bedbug population of the institution before launching upon his experiments.
It was only natural that Dr. Campbell, being a national scientific figure, came into frequent contact with the leading minds of his generation. Among his associates for many years was J. A. L. Waddell, D.E., LL.D., who became a staunch admirer, and attempted with vigor to direct world attention upon the spectacular and thorough researches of the San Antonio physician. In one of his papers, Waddell says:
“The writer has long felt that the results of Dr. Campbell’s wonderful and interesting nature studies should be brought to the attention not only of the medical profession throughout the world but also of those intelligent, thinking people who are interested in the works of nature and of the methods of utilizing them for the benefits of mankind.”
Waddell tells of his first meeting with Dr. Campbell and of how a recital of the doctor’s complete and painstaking experiments on bedbugs and smallpox convinced him of the doctor’s claims. The writer deviates to recount some personal experiences among French Canadians, who at that period were much afflicted with smallpox. He pointed out that most of their houses were overrun with bedbugs – also that the Canadian Indians were much afflicted with that dread disease, which they often contracted by going into abandoned tepees or huts. “This,” he explained, “is so well known in the Canadian wilds that such old habitations are avoided with dread and passed with a shudder. Old, disgarded clothing has long been recognized as a carrier of contagion, although nobody in Canada had ever dreamed of the transmission of the disease being due to insects, in spite of the fact that such abandoned huts and clothing were known to contain bedbugs.”
Waddell tells of Dr. Campbell’s desire to go to Mexico in order to experiment upon prison inmates, who would be given their liberty after investigations were finished. There were no laws in Mexico at that time preventing such experiments. The physician-scientist was seeking a grant of $12,000 to carry out that project. Waddell tried to raise the money for him from several sources but failed. Finally Dr. Campbell called upon one of the directors of the Rockefeller Institute. After this individual listened to the doctor’s request, Waddell describes him as holding up his hands in horror and exclaiming, “What! Furnish you with money to experiment upon human beings! What do you think the American people would say, were I to do such a thing as that?”
Concluding his article, Waddell said: “In my opinion, Dr. Campbell has proved beyond the peradventure of a doubt that smallpox is transmitted in one way only – by the bite of an infected bedbug, or possibly in rare cases by that of another blood-sucking insect, the chinche volante.”
At the conclusion of his long and thorough experimentations, Dr. Campbell arrived at two important conclusions. 1. That smallpox is transmitted only by the bite of an infected bug. 2. That perversion of nutrition determines the degree of virulence. Of the first, he said: “In all of the cases of smallpox that have originated here I have always found bedbugs; and where patients suffering with this disease were brought here (to the Pest House) and placed in premises free from these vermin, the disease did not spread to persons living with the patient. This has occurred in all stages of the disease.”
On nutrition he had this to say: “The most important observation on the medical aspect of this disease is the cachexia with which it is invariably associated and which is actually the sole requisite for its different degrees of virulence. I refer to the scorbutic (relating to scurvy – the disease caused by lack of green food) cachexia . . . The removal of this perversion of nutrition will so mitigate the virulence of this malady as positively to prevent the pitting or pocking of smallpox.”
Although Dr. Campbell was never able to obtain the funds for pursuing his program in Mexico – that plague-swept border neighbor- his work was carried on by Dr. J. A. Watts of San Antonio, who spent several years in that country and was thrown constantly in contact with smallpox. In a paper read before the Bexar County Medical Society, Dr. Watts disparaged the results of vaccination “by points and serum,” and particularly the vaccination methods adopted by the government of Mexico. “The lack of care in taking the pus; the disregard to the clinical health of the subjects and the severely sore arms from mixed infection placed it where my using it was impossible.” A record of all cases vaccinated showed a failure of 80 per cent. Dr. Watts used all known means of stamping out the disease, except isolation. This he could not impose since the government did not impose quarantines. Becoming interested in Dr. Campbell’s theory of the transmission of smallpox, he redoubled his fight to rid his community of the malady. This he did by an educational campaign against bedbugs. In reporting the results of this effort, he said: “Where I was able to do this or where I found a house free from bedbugs, I never had a second case of smallpox occur. I allowed and even encouraged free intermingling of families after I was positive that no bugs existed, and in each case had no recurrence of the disease.”
In 1907-8 an epidemic broke out during which the doctor mingled freely with his family, friends, patients, and smallpox sufferers. “I never,” he reported, “employed any of the methods recommended, such as changing, robing, disinfection during or after visits. I also had the closest possible relations with my boy, who even accompanied me on my rounds when I went to see these cases, he, of course, remaining in the buggy.”
Two years later the boy was “successfully” vaccinated by his grandfather in San Antonio, which determined that he was not “immune.”
Dr. Watts recited many cases where free mingling of members of families with smallpox victims was allowed under his watchfulness, after the bug-killing process was executed. In all of the cases, none acquired the disease. One case was designated as L.R. age 20 years. Dr. Watts says:
“Seen in initial stage. I remudded his house and cleaned it with bichloride solution. No case developed among any other members of this family, although three children, his wife, and his brother’s wife and mother lived there. Also about twenty relatives visited him during his illness. All of these were patients of mine and personally known to me.”
In the case of C.C., aged 10, he reported: “Well developed when first seen. I ordered the house cleaned up under police supervision. His brother developed the disease three days afterwards, but no other case occurred here, although three girls, the mother and grandmother occupied this cave.” Another case was “J.A. Aged one year. Some ten children lived here in three rooms. After several hours of hard work at extermination and cleaning up I was rewarded by no new cases developing here.”
Many more cases were recited in Dr. Watts’ report, all of them with the same convicting results. Following the presentation of these cxperiments of Drs. Campbell and Watts, the Bexar County Medical Society adopted the following resolution: “Resolved, that we express our entire confidence in Dr. Campbell’s experiments and clinical observations tending to show that the bedbug is the sole conveyer of smallpox, as the body-louse is of typhus fever, and we believe that further experience will lead to its complete demonstration.”
Fifty years ago, bedbugs were a common household pest, from the wilds of the Canadian Northwest to the teepees and caves and homes of luxury of our border neighbors on the South; from Manhattan’s swank hotels to the cushioned luxury-trains of Pullman, and across the sweeps of prairie to the Gold Coast. Only the most fastidious housewife kept free of them, and she must be forever on the lookout. Coats and wraps of guests were carefully hung on halltrees lest the visitor might inadvertently leave a bug if thrown across the bed. Home furnishings were against cleanliness a half-century ago, from the massive, ornate furniture, to the straw-filled mattresses and straw-padded rag carpets; from the source of water in the rain-barrel and the old oaken bucket, to the cream crock and pans, of milk cooling behind screens in the cellar. Flies bred in the tidiest of privies and mosquitoes hatched in the rain-barrel. Housewives struggled from dawn until midnight, but the plague caught up with them, despite vaccinations. The Boston Post of January 2, 1934, gave an illuminating account of this hopeless struggle.
“The first compulsory vaccination law was passed by Massachusetts in 1855. It required that every infant must be vaccinated before reaching the age of two years: that no child should be admitted to any public school unless vaccinated; that all inmates of public institutions must be vaccinated; that the employees of all manufacturing corporations must be vaccinated as a prerequisite to employment and, to cap the climax, everyone must be vaccinated every five years. What was the result? In the twenty years following the enactment of this law there were 4221 deaths from smallpox in Massachusetts. The protection afforded by this law did not highly recommend itself to the people, and in time it was pretty much ignored, so that finally in 1908 the infant vacci nation requirement was repealed without protest by anyone and without any bad results.” Other states observed similar disheartening results. Epidemics occurred and vaccinated persons, serene in the delusion of safety, were struck down by the virulent killer.
Today, the bedbug has all but vanished from this vacuumed and disinfected land of ours.
And smallpox is so rare that thousands of younger doctors have never seen a case of the disease. But the practice of vaccination is as popular as it was in the days of the plague. It is even more popular, since the proof is gone that vaccination does not prevent smallpox. There is no smallpox to prevent. Why, then, does the vaccination fetish persist? We must find the answer in economics – in the billiondollar serum industry and its correlative industry, medical practice. This book would not be written but for the alarming increase of encephalitis, syphilis, poliomyelitis and cancer- all of these diseases of virus infiltration into the blood and tissues of the body. Heart disease and cancer are death-dealing afflictions of alarming increase. We knew where to look for these viruses when food was cooled in damp cellars, and drinking water contained the seepage from privies, and mosquitoes and bedbugs inhabited the dwellings of man. But today we have hidden them in a sterilized phial and we inject them into the body with a disinfected needle. Then we play blind-man’s buff and set out in frantic search for the ultra-microscopic pests. We do this so scientifically, and at such great expense, and with so much pomp that we create a great illusion; and courageous, indeed, is the man who dares to decry the practice.
But thoughts of the disease still strike terror in the hearts of countless people; and boards of health grow panicky with its approach. This happened in the vast metropolis of New York in March, 1947, when a solitary suspected case so frightened health officials that they brought about the mass vaccination of more than five million persons.
In a story, Smallpox, The Killer That Stalked New York, the Cosmopolitan Magazine for April, 1948, gives a graphic description of what happened.
The patient who died of the disease was Jean LeBar, an exporter of leather goods from Mexico. He was hospitalized in New York and treated for a rash. He had been vaccinated in childhood, and carried in his pocket a certificate showing a recent vaccination, on crossing the border. Thus, supposedly, he was immune. The greatest dermatologists in the metropolis diagnosed his rash variously. One doctor said he suspected drug rash, since LeBar, being ill on his trip from Mexico, had taken a variety of phenobartitols and other pain-killing and sleep-inducing compounds. Another doctor thought the patient had “ricketsailpox,” a newly discovered disease transmitted by mites.
None thought LeBar had smallpox, but when a few rash cases developed in the hospital where he had died, the doctors were wary. They examined these and it took a young doctor to put the seal of smallpox upon them when he said, “I’ve never seen it myself, but this looks like smallpox.”
It was Dr. Ralph Muckenfuss, chief of the city’s virus laboratory, who finally announced that LeBar had died of smallpox, and started the panic. In the course of a few hours after his pronouncement, members of the health department appeared before the mayor. Their conference is described as follows in Cosmopolitan:
“Drs. Bernecker and Weinstein outlined their program of mass vaccination, millions of doses of vaccine and hundreds of doctors to give them; health centers and police stations to handle the crowds; press and radio to spread the word. Smallpox might ravage the city, spread through the state, close up the port of New York, Dr. Weinstein declared. ‘Besides,’ Dr. Bernecker added, ‘there never was a better chance to immunize the whole city at once.’
‘How much will it cost?’ asked the mayor. ‘Not more than a half million,’ the doctors said.
And so the doctors of the city were enlisted and began one of the most phantasmagoric experiments of all times. Even though LeBar had been dead and cremated for three weeks, and had carried his vaccination certificate in his billfold when he died the doctors began tracing his movements from the hour he crossed the border.
Says the Cosmopolitan in telling this story: “Dr. Weinstein reached for his telephone. He called the United States Public Health Service in Washington and advised them, calmly as he could, that smallpox had entered New York and that the city was looking into the matter. He ordered a report from Helen LeBar (the victim’s wife) on the travels of a bus more wayward than Bill Camillo’s. He called the Foreign Quarantine Office on Staten Island, informing them that a man from Mexico had slipped through the border inspectors with a microscopic virus. And he ordered the immediate vaccination of the city’s police and firemen.”
From beginning to end the story was replete with melodrama, physicians armed with needles invading boarding houses in the slums, and obtaining the names of the people who had occupied the same hotel with the LeBars. Says the Cosmopolitan: “The show girls of Carousel and Oklahoma made the front pages being vaccinated, of course, on their thighs.”
And, incidentally, the fons et origo of this melodrama was overlooked by physicians. It is found in the following quotations from the Cosmopolitan recital:
“On Tuesday morning, Mrs. LeBar appeared at the hospital with a small medicine bottle containing a very small bug. She’d found the bug, she said, while going through her husband’s clothing and thought it might account for his illness. Excited about her discovery, she urged the doctors to examine the bug as quickly as possible.
“The hospital sent the mysterious bug to the New York University Laboratory, where it was promptly identified by Dr. Donald Moore, entomologist, as a Cimex lectularius, or the common and harmless bedbug.”
http://www.stanford.edu/group/virus/pox/2000/vaccinia_virus.html VACCINIA VIRUS is a big mystery in virology. It is not known whether vaccinia virus is the product of genetic recombination, or if it is a species derived from cowpox virus or variola virus by prolonged serial passage, or if it is the living representative of a now extinct virus. Vaccinia virus was used for smallpox vaccination via inoculation into the superficial layers of the skin of the upper arm. However, with the eradication of smallpox, routine vaccination with vaccinia virus has ceased. Recent interest in vaccinia has focused on its possible usage as a vector for immunization against other viruses.
Much less virulent strains than those used for vaccination against smallpox are being developed for use as vectors, in hopes of reducing the likelihood of the development of serious complications previously seen with smallpox vaccination. In this page, you will learn more about the very rare, though serious, complications that arose as a result of smallpox vaccination.
Primary response to vaccination
Four to five days following vaccination with vaccinia virus, a papule appeared at the site of vaccination. Two or three days later the papular lesion became vesicular, growing until it reached its maximum diameter on the 9th or 10th day. During this time, the draining lymph nodes of the axial were enlarged and tender. Many patients also presented a mild fever. The lesion dried from the center outward, and the brown scab fell off after about three weeks, leaving a scar- a mark by which previous vaccinees could be recognized.
Complications of Vaccination Progressive vaccinia (vaccinia necrosum) – Progressive vaccinia is a severe, potentially fatal illness characterized by progressive necrosis at the site of vaccination. This occurred only in immunocompromised individuals with deficiencies in their cell-mediated immune system. There were only about 1.6 cases of progressive vaccinia per million vaccinations reported. See picture below for clinical manifestation of progressive vaccinia.
Eczema vaccinatum – This occurred only in persons who suffered from eczema. Unvaccinated contact with a vaccinated individual was the usual mode of transmission.
In a national survey in the United States conducted after smallpox had been eliminated, there were 66 cases, with no deaths, among 14.5 million vaccinees.
Generalized vaccinia – Generalized vaccinia was characterized by a vesicular rash that sometimes covered the entire body. This usually occurred 6 to 9 days after vaccination.
The lesions usually resembled the initial lesion found at the inoculation site, but they sometimes varied in size. Generalized vaccinia was not associated with immunodeficiency. The rash was usually self-limiting and thus, little or no therapy was administered. There were about 23.4 cases per million vaccinees.
Postvaccinial encephalitis – Neurological complications were the most serious ones that occurred from vaccination with vaccinia virus. Postvaccinal encephalitis usually occurred in patients over the age of two. The case fatality rate was about 35% within a week of onset. In the United States, there were 12 cases, of which one resulted in death, among the 13 million vaccinees.
Accidental infection – Accidental infection of some part of the body away from the inoculation site was the most common complication that arose from vaccination with vaccinia. Ocular vaccinia was a common manifestation of accidental infection.